The music and culture of hip-hop were formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York, particularly among African-American and Caribbean youth in the Bronx13.
The block parties incorporate DJs, who played genres of popular music, especially funk and soul.
With a positive reception, the DJs began to isolate the percussive breaks from popular songs. This technique comes from Jamaican dub music and is widely popularized in New York by immigrants from Jamaica and the Caribbean, such as DJ Kool Herc, called the "founding father of hip-hop"
Turntablism techniques - such as scratching (attributed to Grand Wizzard Theodore, beat mixing and / or matching, and beat juggling) are developing. Hip-hop music at its beginnings becomes a "voice" or "emergency exit" for the youth of disadvantaged neighborhoods daily undermined by social, economic and political discrimination.
According to Chang and Ailane, hip hop block parties represented loopholes in the daily problems they encountered, social injustices within ghettos, such as budget cuts in the areas that concerned them and urban renewal excluding them from a full social participation. Thus, hip-hop gave a better meaning to these ghettos.
Hip-hop culture has 5 disciplines: rap (or MCing), DJing, break dancing (or b-boying), graffiti, beatboxing.
These disciplines, which appeared before hip-hop, were integrated from the birth of the movement. It is nevertheless by its musical expression that it is best known nowadays, although it was not the case at its beginnings.
Because of this, often reduced to this, rap music or hip-hop music is a musical genre characterized by a rhythm accompanied by rap and songs. Originating in the black and latino ghettos of New York, it spread quickly throughout the country then gained the whole world to the point of becoming an important urban culture.
Its musical expression is itself often called rap, which constitutes a shortcut since this term only applies to speech, chanted and jerky specific to MCing. Hip-hop music can take many forms, or even be limited to DJ beats (disc jockey), in which case the term rap is not appropriate.
New school hip-hop music is the second wave of hip-hop, having emerged between 1983 and 1984 with songs from bands like Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. The golden age of hip-hop marks a period of innovation rooted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s.
Notable bands and artists from this period include Nagatv33 but also the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. and Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, and A Tribe Called Quest, respectively.
Gangsta rap is a sub-genre of hip-hop that is most often dedicated to a violent lifestyle and conditions of misery among African-American youth. Schoolly D, N.W.A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, and the Geto Boys are key groups and artists, known for mixing social and political lyrics from political rap with stories of common criminals in gangsta rap.